European regulators have initiated multiple investigations into major technology firms. Recently, the EU antitrust body accused Meta and Apple of violating the Digital Markets Act (DMA) and Microsoft of unlawfully integrating its Office and Teams products. Penalties for DMA breaches could reach up to 10% of a company's worldwide annual revenue.

The European Commission (EC), the EU's competition watchdog, charged Meta on July 1 for not adhering to the DMA with its new advertising model requiring payment or consent. The EC stated that this model coerces users into agreeing to the use of their personal data without offering a less personalized alternative. In response to EU concerns, Meta enhanced its misinformation tracking tool, CrowdTangle, ahead of the European Parliament elections.

The EC also accused Apple of violating the DMA through its App Store policies, which restrict app developers from directing consumers to other options. Additionally, the EC is investigating new contractual terms Apple has imposed on third-party developers. In a separate case, Apple was fined 1.84 billion euros following a complaint from Spotify.

The EC charged Microsoft with illegally bundling Teams with Office and suggested further unbundling is necessary. Microsoft has committed to addressing these concerns. The EC is also examining whether Microsoft is hindering customers from using competitor security software and whether its substantial investment in OpenAI complies with EU merger regulations.

Other investigations include those against Alphabet's Google for potential DMA violations and scrutiny of Microsoft and Amazon's dominance in the UK cloud market. Nvidia faces potential charges in France for anti-competitive practices, while Google has agreed to modify its data practices in Germany to resolve antitrust issues.

Regulators in various European countries, including Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain, have taken actions against these tech giants, ranging from fines to investigations into market dominance and data handling practices.