The African National Congress (ANC) is facing the likelihood of losing its parliamentary majority after three decades, according to partial election results. This situation would necessitate the ANC to form a coalition in order to retain power, marking a historic shift in South Africa's post-apartheid era.

If confirmed, the loss of majority would compel the ANC to engage in political negotiations with one or more parties, potentially leading to instability in the country's political landscape in the coming weeks or months.

The uncertainty lies in the composition of a future coalition, with the ANC currently holding 43.4% of the vote, the Democratic Alliance at 24.9%, the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) at 8.8%, and the uMkhonto we Sizwe (MK) at 8.1%. While the ANC has traditionally secured support in rural areas, urban centers may present different results, impacting the final outcome.

The proportional voting system in South Africa determines the number of seats a party obtains in the National Assembly based on its share of the vote. Although the ANC is anticipated to remain the largest party, projections suggest it may fall short of an outright majority, potentially impacting the leadership dynamics within the party.

The potential formation of a coalition with opposition parties, such as the Democratic Alliance, poses challenges due to stark policy differences and could influence financial markets. Speculation surrounds the ANC's decision to partner with market-friendly parties or populist entities advocating nationalization, further adding to the political uncertainty and its potential economic repercussions.

The outcome also raises questions about the potential leadership challenges within the ANC and the impact on the country's future direction. Amid these developments, the formation and speed of a coalition will serve as indicators of the political landscape's stability in the foreseeable future.

The electoral commission has a seven-day window to declare full results, signaling that the country may soon witness a shift in its political landscape with far-reaching implications for its future trajectory.